Critical challenges and emerging opportunities in hepatitis C virus research in an era of potent antiviral therapy: Considerations for scientists and funding agencies.
Virus Res. 2018; 248: 53-62
Lancet. 2019; 394: 1451-1466
The case for a universal hepatitis C vaccine to achieve hepatitis C elimination.
BMC Med. 2019; 17: 175
Hepatitis C Vaccine: 10 Good Reasons for Continuing.
Hepatology. 2020; 71: 1845-1850
Rapid induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies and viral clearance in a single-source outbreak of hepatitis C.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007; 104: 6025-6030
Spontaneous control of primary hepatitis C virus infection and immunity against persistent reinfection.
Gastroenterology. 2010; 138: 315-324
The broad assessment of HCV genotypes 1 and 3 antigenic targets reveals limited cross-reactivity with implications for vaccine design.
Gut. 2016; 65: 112-123
Innate and adaptive immune responses in HCV infections.
J Hepatol. 2014; 61: S14-25
Immune responses to HCV and other hepatitis viruses.
Immunity. 2014; 40: 13-24
Approaches, Progress, and Challenges to Hepatitis C Vaccine Development.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 156: 418-430
Protection against persistence of hepatitis C.
Lancet. 2002; 359: 1478-1483
Protective immune response to hepatitis C virus in chimpanzees rechallenged following clearance of primary infection.
Hepatology. 2001; 33: 1479-1487
Previously infected and recovered chimpanzees exhibit rapid responses that control hepatitis C virus replication upon rechallenge.
J Virol. 2002; 76: 6586-6595
A prophylactic hepatitis C virus vaccine: a distant peak still worth climbing.
J Hepatol. 2014; 61: S34-44
Hepatitis C Vaccines, Antibodies, and T Cells.
Front Immunol. 2018; 9: 1480
Insights From Antiviral Therapy Into Immune Responses to Hepatitis B and C Virus Infection.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 156: 369-383
T cell responses in hepatitis C virus infection: historical overview and goals for future research.
Antiviral Res. 2015; 114: 96-105
The role of hepatitis C virus specific CD4+ T lymphocytes in acute and chronic hepatitis C.
J Mol Med. 1996; 74: 583-588
Different clinical behaviors of acute hepatitis C virus infection are associated with different vigor of the anti-viral cell-mediated immune response.
J Clin Invest. 1996; 98: 706-714
Determinants of viral clearance and persistence during acute hepatitis C virus infection.
J Exp Med. 2001; 194: 1395-1406
Analysis of successful immune responses in persons infected with hepatitis C virus.
J Exp Med. 2000; 191: 1499-1512
Analysis of a successful immune response against hepatitis C virus.
Immunity. 1999; 10: 439-449
Viral and immunological determinants of hepatitis C virus clearance, persistence, and disease.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002; 99: 15661-15668
Delayed Induction, Not Impaired Recruitment of Specific CD8(+) T Cells, Causes the Late Onset of Acute Hepatitis C.
Analysis of CD8+ T-cell-mediated inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication using a novel immunological model.
Gastroenterology. 2009; 136: 1391-1401
Antibody Responses in Hepatitis C Infection.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2020;
HCV-Specific T Cell Responses During and After Chronic HCV Infection.
Viruses. 2018; 10
Galectin-9 and IL-21 mediate cross-regulation between Th17 and Treg cells during acute hepatitis C.
PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9e1003422
Virus-Specific CD4+ T Cells Have Functional and Phenotypic Characteristics of Follicular T-Helper Cells in Patients With Acute and Chronic HCV Infections.
Gastroenterology. 2016; 150 (): 696-706
Hepatitis C virus-specific CD4+ T cell phenotype and function in different infection outcomes.
J Clin Invest. 2020; 130: 768-773
Broadly directed virus-specific CD4+ T cell responses are primed during acute hepatitis C infection, but rapidly disappear from human blood with viral persistence.
J Exp Med. 2012; 209: 61-75
Comprehensive analyses of CD8+ T cell responses during longitudinal study of acute human hepatitis C.
Hepatology. 2005; 42: 104-112
High resolution analysis of cellular immune responses in resolved and persistent hepatitis C virus infection.
Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: 924-936
Sustained dysfunction of antiviral CD8+ T lymphocytes after infection with hepatitis C virus.
J Virol. 2001; 75: 5550-5558
Cellular immune responses persist and humoral responses decrease two decades after recovery from a single-source outbreak of hepatitis C.
Nat Med. 2000; 6: 578-582
PD-1 expression in acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with HCV-specific CD8 exhaustion.
J Virol. 2006; 80: 11398-11403
High level of PD-1 expression on hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells during acute HCV infection, irrespective of clinical outcome.
J Virol. 2008; 82: 3154-3160
The frequency of CD127(+) hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cells but not the expression of exhaustion markers predicts the outcome of acute HCV infection.
J Virol. 2013; 87: 4772-4777
Loss of IL-7 receptor alpha-chain (CD127) expression in acute HCV infection associated with viral persistence.
Hepatology. 2006; 44: 1098-1109
Dysfunctional CD8+ T cells in hepatitis B and C are characterized by a lack of antigen-specific T-bet induction.
J Exp Med. 2014; 211: 2047-2059
Coexpression of PD-1, 2B4, CD160 and KLRG1 on exhausted HCV-specific CD8+ T cells is linked to antigen recognition and T cell differentiation.
PLoS Pathog. 2010; 6e1000947
Early Transcriptional Divergence Marks Virus-Specific Primary Human CD8(+) T Cells in Chronic versus Acute Infection.
Immunity. 2017; 47: 648-663 e648
Targeting p53 and histone methyltransferases restores exhausted CD8+ T cells in HCV infection.
Nat Commun. 2020; 11: 604
Signatures of protective memory immune responses during hepatitis C virus reinfection.
Gastroenterology. 2014; 147: 870-881 e878
HCV persistence and immune evasion in the absence of memory T cell help.
Science. 2003; 302: 659-662
Memory CD8+ T cells are required for protection from persistent hepatitis C virus infection.
J Exp Med. 2003; 197: 1645-1655
Previously infected chimpanzees are not consistently protected against reinfection or persistent infection after reexposure to the identical hepatitis C virus strain.
J Virol. 2008; 82: 8183-8195
Defining ‘T cell exhaustion’.
Nat Rev Immunol. 2019; 19: 665-674
Dysfunction and functional restoration of HCV-specific CD8 responses in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.
Hepatology. 2007; 45: 588-601
Liver-infiltrating lymphocytes in chronic human hepatitis C virus infection display an exhausted phenotype with high levels of PD-1 and low levels of CD127 expression.
J Virol. 2007; 81: 2545-2553
Synergistic reversal of intrahepatic HCV-specific CD8 T cell exhaustion by combined PD-1/CTLA-4 blockade.
PLoS Pathog. 2009; 5e1000313
TCF1(+) hepatitis C virus-specific CD8(+) T cells are maintained after cessation of chronic antigen stimulation.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8: 15050
T Cell Factor 1-Expressing Memory-like CD8(+) T Cells Sustain the Immune Response to Chronic Viral Infections.
Immunity. 2016; 45: 415-427
TOX transcriptionally and epigenetically programs CD8(+) T cell exhaustion.
Nature. 2019; 571: 211-218
TOX reinforces the phenotype and longevity of exhausted T cells in chronic viral infection.
Nature. 2019; 571: 265-269
Liver environment and HCV replication affect human T-cell phenotype and expression of inhibitory receptors.
Gastroenterology. 2014; 146: 550-561
Hepatic immune regulation and its involvement in viral hepatitis infection.
Gastroenterology. 2014; 146: 1193-1207
The outcome of hepatitis C virus infection is predicted by escape mutations in epitopes targeted by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
Immunity. 2001; 15: 883-895
Immunological significance of cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope variants in patients chronically infected by the hepatitis C virus.
J Clin Invest. 1997; 100: 2376-2385
CD8 epitope escape and reversion in acute HCV infection.
J Exp Med. 2004; 200: 1593-1604
Virological and immunological determinants of intrahepatic virus-specific CD8+ T-cell failure in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.
Hepatology. 2008; 47: 1824-1836
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) sequence variation induces an HCV-specific T-cell phenotype analogous to spontaneous resolution.
J Virol. 2010; 84: 1656-1663
Dominant influence of an HLA-B27 restricted CD8+ T cell response in mediating HCV clearance and evolution.
Hepatology. 2006; 43: 563-572
Spontaneous control of HCV is associated with expression of HLA-B 57 and preservation of targeted epitopes.
Gastroenterology. 2011; 140: 686-696 e681
Molecular footprints reveal the impact of the protective HLA-A*03 allele in hepatitis C virus infection.
Loss of viral fitness and cross-recognition by CD8+ T cells limit HCV escape from a protective HLA-B27-restricted human immune response.
J Clin Invest. 2009; 119: 376-386
The generation of a simian adenoviral vectored HCV vaccine encoding genetically conserved gene segments to target multiple HCV genotypes.
Vaccine. 2018; 36: 313-321
Inhibitory molecules that regulate expansion and restoration of HCV-specific CD4+ T cells in patients with chronic infection.
Gastroenterology. 2011; 141 (): 1422-1431
HCV-specific CD4+ T cells of patients with acute and chronic HCV infection display high expression of TIGIT and other co-inhibitory molecules.
Sci Rep. 2019; 9: 10624
Selection-driven immune escape is not a significant factor in the failure of CD4 T cell responses in persistent hepatitis C virus infection.
Hepatology. 2010; 51: 378-387
Virological footprint of CD4+ T-cell responses during chronic hepatitis C virus infection.
J Gen Virol. 2010; 91: 1396-1406
Evidence of CD4(+) T cell-mediated immune pressure on the Hepatitis C virus genome.
Sci Rep. 2018; 8: 7224
T cells with a CD4+CD25+ regulatory phenotype suppress in vitro proliferation of virus-specific CD8+ T cells during chronic hepatitis C virus infection.
J Virol. 2005; 79: 7860-7867
An immunomodulatory role for CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T lymphocytes in hepatitis C virus infection.
Hepatology. 2004; 40: 1062-1071
Suppression of HCV-specific T cells without differential hierarchy demonstrated ex vivo in persistent HCV infection.
Hepatology. 2003; 38: 1437-1448
Restoration of HCV-specific CD8+ T cell function by interferon-free therapy.
J Hepatol. 2014; 61: 538-543
T-cell immunity and hepatitis C virus reinfection after cure of chronic hepatitis C with an interferon-free antiviral regimen in a chimpanzee.
Hepatology. 2014; 60: 1531-1540
Elimination of hepatitis C virus has limited impact on the functional and mitochondrial impairment of HCV-specific CD8+ T cell responses.
J Hepatol. 2019; 71: 889-899
Comparison of immune restoration in early versus late alpha interferon therapy against hepatitis C virus.
J Virol. 2010; 84: 10429-10435
T cells maintain an exhausted phenotype after antigen withdrawal and population reexpansion.
Nat Immunol. 2013; 14: 603-610
Chronic hepatitis C viral infection subverts vaccine-induced T-cell immunity in humans.
Hepatology. 2016; 63: 1455-1470
Persistent hepatitis C viral replication despite priming of functional CD8+ T cells by combined therapy with a vaccine and a direct-acting antiviral.
Hepatology. 2016; 63: 1442-1454
Characterising HCV specific CD4+ T-cells following viral-vectored vaccination, directly acting anti-virals and spontaneous viral cure.
Increased peripheral CD4(+) regulatory T cells persist after successful direct-acting antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis C.
J Hepatol. 2017; 66: 888-896
Follicular T helper cells shape the HCV-specific CD4+ T cell repertoire after virus elimination.
J Clin Invest. 2020; 130: 998-1009
A T-cell HCV vaccine eliciting effective immunity against heterologous virus challenge in chimpanzees.
Nat Med. 2006; 12: 190-197
Successful vaccination induces multifunctional memory T-cell precursors associated with early control of hepatitis C virus.
Gastroenterology. 2012; 143 (): 1048-1060
Priming of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses using a HCV core ISCOMATRIX vaccine: a phase I study in healthy volunteers.
Hum Vaccin. 2009; 5: 151-157
Analysis of renal cell transformation following exposure to trichloroethene in vivo and its metabolite S-(dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine in vitro.
Toxicology. 2006; 224: 108-118
A human vaccine strategy based on chimpanzee adenoviral and MVA vectors that primes, boosts, and sustains functional HCV-specific T cell memory.
Sci Transl Med. 2014; 6 ()
Novel adenovirus-based vaccines induce broad and sustained T cell responses to HCV in man.
Sci Transl Med. 2012; 4 ()
LB10. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Efficacy Trial of a Vaccine to Prevent Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in an at-Risk Population.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 2019; 6 ()
Cross-reactivity of hepatitis C virus specific vaccine-induced T cells at immunodominant epitopes.
Eur J Immunol. 2015; 45: 309-316
Mouse models of acute and chronic hepacivirus infection.
Science. 2017; 357: 204-208
Animal Models of Hepatitis C Virus Infection.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2020; 10