Home Journals Predicting Inflammatory Bowel Disease Symptoms Onset: Nitrous Take on Gut Bacteria Is No Laughing Matter

Predicting Inflammatory Bowel Disease Symptoms Onset: Nitrous Take on Gut Bacteria Is No Laughing Matter

Credits to the Source Link Tor Savidge
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The gut microbiome is composed of microorganisms that generally live in symbiosis with our body and play a fundamental role in maintaining human health. Establishing these healthy host-microbiome interactions, especially during early childhood, is important in developing homeostatic immune, metabolic, and epigenetic functions that protect us from chronic gastrointestinal diseases later in life. Considered by some as our second genome, the genetic information contained within the gut microbiome holds tremendous potential for biomarker and therapeutic discovery. Next generation sequencing and functional systems biology technologies have dramatically advanced the potential for microbiome biomarker discovery by facilitating massive parallel identification of thousands of microbial species and the biochemical pathways that correlate with disease prognosis and outcomes. This has led to the recognition that dysbiosis is a key feature of human gastrointestinal disease, but there is currently little agreement on what constitutes dysbiosis or how this should be measured or interpreted because of geographic, ethnic, dietary, and age-related variations that complicate how best to define the healthy microbiome as a gold standard reference for clinical diagnosis. Deciphering poorly annotated genetic variance also remains a major unresolved hurdle in defining the healthy human microbiome because large amounts of the operative genomic variant are not readily identifiable using standard bioinformatics tools. This finding tends to be conveniently ignored in most microbiome studies and should lead us to complement purely annotation and database-driven biomarker discovery with annotation-agnostic workflows that identify new metagenomic content that is predictive of disease susceptibility and treatment outcomes.

In this issue of Clinical and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Miyoshi et al

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  • Miyoshi J.
  • Lee S.T.M.
  • Kennedy M.
  • Puertolas M.
  • Frith M.
  • Koval J.C.
  • Miyoshi S.
  • Antonopoulos D.A.
  • Leone V.
  • Chang E.B.
Metagenomic alterations in gut microbiota precede and predict onset of colitis in the IL10 gene-deficient murine model.