Holmer, M. et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is an increasing indication for liver transplantation in the Nordic countries. Liver Int. 38(11), 2082–2090 (2018).
Kim, D., Touros, A. & Kim, W. R. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome. Clin. Liver Dis. 22(1), 133–140 (2018).
Kappus, M. & Abdelmalek, M. D. Novo and recurrence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis after liver transplantation. Clin. Liver Dis. 21(2), 321–335 (2017).
Filipec-Kanizaj, T. et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and liver transplantation—Where do we stand?. Mikolasevic I World J. Gastroenterol. 24(14), 1491–1506 (2018).
Kim, H. et al. Histologically proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and clinically related factors in recipients after liver transplantation. Clin. Transplant. 28(5), 521–529 (2014).
Buzzetti, E., Pinzani, M. & Tsochatzis, E. A. The multiple-hit pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Metabolism 65(8), 1038–1048 (2016).
Schuppan, D. & Schattenberg, J. M. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: pathogenesis and novel therapeutic approaches. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 28(Suppl 1), 68–76 (2013).
Chascsa, D. M. & Vargas, H. E. The gastroenterologist’s guide to management of the post-liver transplant patient. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 113(6), 819–828 (2018).
Richards, J., Gunson, B., Johnson, J. & Neuberger, J. Weight gain and obesity after liver transplantation. Transpl. Int. 18(4), 461–466 (2005).
Barone, M. et al. Obesity as predictor of postoperative outcomes in liver transplant candidates: Review of the literature and future perspectives. Dig. Liver Dis. 49(9), 957–966 (2017).
Dehghani, S. M. et al. Hyperlipidemia in Iranian liver transplant recipients: prevalence and risk factors. J. Gastroenterol. 42(9), 769–774 (2007).
Jenssen, T. & Hartmann, A. Post-transplant diabetes mellitus in patients with solid organ transplants. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 15(3), 172–188 (2019).
Jelenik, T. et al. Mechanisms of insulin resistance in primary and secondary nonalcoholic fatty liver. Diabetes 66, 2241–2253 (2017).
Lambert, J. E., Ramos-Roman, M. A., Browning, J. D. & Parks, E. J. Increased de novo lipogenesis is a distinct characteristic of individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 146, 726–735 (2014).
Polyzos, S. A., Kountouras, J. & Mantzoros, C. S. Adipokines in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Metabolism 65(8), 1062–1079 (2016).
Vallin, M. et al. Recurrent or de novo nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after liver transplantation: natural history based on liver biopsy analysis. Liver Transpl. 20(9), 1064–1071 (2014).
Galvin, Z. et al. Predictors of de novo nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after liver transplantation and associated fibrosis. Liver Transpl. 25(1), 56–67 (2019).
Seo, S. et al. De novo nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 13(6), 844–847 (2007).
Birkenfeld, A. L. & Shulman, G. I. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Hepatology 59(2), 713–723 (2014).
Petersen, M. C. & Shulman, G. I. Roles of diacylglycerols and ceramides in hepatic insulin resistance. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 38(7), 649–665 (2017).
Ter Horst, K. W. et al. Hepatic diacylglycerol-associated protein kinase Cε translocation links hepatic steatosis to hepatic insulin resistance in humans. Cell. Rep. 19(10), 1997–2004 (2017).
Luukkonen, P. K. et al. Hepatic ceramides dissociate steatosis and insulin resistance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J. Hepatol. 64, 1167–1175 (2016).
Alves, T. C. et al. Regulation of hepatic fat and glucose oxidation in rats with lipid-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Hepatology 53, 1175–1181 (2011).
Isokuortti, E. et al. Use of HOMA-IR to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based and inter-laboratory study. Diabetologia 60(10), 1873–1882 (2017).
Andrade, A. R. et al. New onset diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease after liver transplantation. Ann. Hepatol. 16(6), 932–940 (2017).
Rudenski, A. S., Matthews, D. R., Levy, J. C. & Turner, R. C. Understanding “insulin resistance”: both glucose resistance and insulin resistance are required to model human diabetes. Metabolism 40, 908–917 (1991).
Delgado-Borrego, A. et al. Hepatitis C virus is independently associated with increased insulin resistance after liver transplantation. Transplantation 77(5), 703–710 (2004).
Da Silva Alves, V., Hack Mendes, R. & Pinto Kruel, C. D. Nutritional status, lipid profile and HOMA-IR in post-liver transplant patients. Nutr Hosp 29(5), 1154–1162 (2014).
Martínez-Díaz-Guerra, G. et al. Serum levels of osteocalcin and insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or new-onset diabetes mellitus after liver transplantation. Horm. Metab. Res. 48(5), 325–330 (2016).
Robertson, S. A., Leinninger, G. M. & Myers, M. G. Jr. Molecular and neural mediators of leptin action. Physiol. Behav. 94(5), 637–642 (2008).
Zhang, R. et al. Selective inactivation of Socs3 in SF1 neurons improves glucose homeostasis without affecting body weight. Endocrinology 149(11), 5654–5661 (2008).
Polyzos, S. A. et al. Circulating leptin in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia 59(1), 30–43 (2016).
van der Poorten, D. et al. Hepatic fat loss in advanced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: are alterations in serum adiponectin the cause?. Hepatology 57(6), 2180–2188 (2013).
Saxena, N. K. & Anania, F. A. Adipocytokines and hepatic fibrosis. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 26(3), 153–161 (2015).
Handy, J. A. et al. Adiponectin activation of AMPK disrupts leptin-mediated hepatic fibrosis via suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS-3). J. Cell Biochem. 110(5), 1195–1207 (2010).
Watt, K. D. et al. Serum adipokine and inflammatory markers before and after liver transplantation in recipients with major cardiovascular events. Liver Transpl. 20(7), 791–797 (2014).
Siddiqui, M. B. et al. The relationship between hypoadiponectinemia and cardiovascular events in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation https://doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000002714 (2019).
Anastácio, L. R. et al. Adipokines, inflammatory mediators, and insulin-resistance parameters may not be good markers of metabolic syndrome after liver transplant. Nutrition 32(9), 921–927 (2016).
Veldt, B. J. et al. Insulin resistance, serum adipokines and risk of fibrosis progression in patients transplanted for hepatitis C. Am. J. Transplant 9(6), 1406–1413 (2009).
John, B. V. et al. Recipient but not donor adiponectin polymorphisms are associated with early posttransplant hepatic steatosis in patients transplanted for non-nonalcoholic fatty liver disease indications. Exp. Clin. Transplant 16(4), 439–445 (2018).
Shi, K. Q. et al. Controlled attenuation parameter for the detection of steatosis severity in chronic liver disease: A meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 29, 1149–1158 (2014).
Fujimori, N. et al. Controlled attenuation parameter is correlated with actual hepatic fat
content in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with none-to-mild obesity and liver fibrosis. Hepatol. Res. 46(10), 1019–1027 (2016).
de Lédinghen, V., Vergniol, J., Foucher, J., Merrouche, W. & le Bail, B. Non-invasive diagnosis of liver steatosis using controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and transient elastography. Liver. Int. 32(6), 911–918 (2012).
Karlas, T. et al. Noninvasive characterization of graft steatosis after liver transplantation. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 50(2), 224–232 (2015).
Levy, J. C., Matthews, D. R. & Hermans, M. P. Correct homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) evaluation uses the computer program. Diabetes Care 21(12), 2191–2192 (1998).
Sasso, M. et al. Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP): a novel VCTE guided ultrasonic attenuation measurement for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis: Preliminary study and validation in a cohort of patients with chronic liver disease from various causes. Ultrasound Med. Biol. 36, 1825–1835 (2010).